Allergic Reaction Symptoms Rash – There are several factors that can cause skin irritation. Drugs, infections, skin diseases or allergic reactions are the main causes. It is about allergy when an allergen triggers the immune response which, in turn, causes irritation, various types of rash, and other symptoms of allergic reaction.
What are the causes of a skin allergic reaction?
Some substances act as allergens for some sensitive subjects, triggering an abnormal abnormal response to the immune system, which becomes superactive in order to defend the body from foreign agents, allergens, in truth.
The immunity that comes into play is directed by Th2 cells and IgE and IgG antibodies. The immune system stimulates the circulatory release of irritating substances that activates surface epithelium (skin and mucous membranes), smooth muscle and vascular system to stimulate the formation of a barrier defense. The exasperation of these mechanisms causes allergic reactions, including dermatitis.
What are the symptoms of a skin allergic reaction?
Itching, redness, red spots on the skin, skin rashes, skin swelling and swelling are symptoms and signs common to most allergic skinheads. There are, however, some differences that help in diagnosing specific conditions.
- Atopic dermatitis (eczema)
Atopic dermatitis, or eczema, is a common pathological condition of the skin, especially in children. It has been hypothesized that atopic dermatitis is due to a permeability of the skin barrier, which causes irritation and inflammation due to many environmental factors.
In some subjects, the symptoms of the eczema are worse due to food allergies. In about half of patients with severe atopic dermatitis, the cause of the disease is caused by a defective gene. An orthodontic difference, eczema pruritus is not only caused by histamine and, for this reason, antihistamines are not sufficient to control their symptoms.
Eczema is often linked to asthma, allergic kidneys (hay fever) or food allergy.
- Contact allergic dermatitis
Contact allergic dermatitis is a skin inflammation that occurs when the skin comes into direct contact with an allergen. For example, in cases of nickel allergy if the skin comes into contact with jewelery made with this material, even with a small amount, there may be symptoms such as cutaneous, skin splinter, pruritus, blisters, burning and swelling at the contact point.
Among other substances that can cause allergic contact dermatitis are poison ivy, soaps, laundry detergents, softeners, shampoos, metals (such as nickel), nail polish, topical medicines, latex plants and gloves.
In some cases the allergic reaction is triggered by the concomitant allergen and exposure to sunlight. This condition is called photoallergic contact dermatitis and may occur with shaving after lotions, sunscreens and some scents.
Hives are a skin inflammation triggered by the release of histamine by the immune system. Histamine causes angioedema or a swelling of the deep layers of the skin. In the horticap are characteristic red, pruriginous, and raised skin.
There are two types of acute and chronic hives. Acute hives sometimes occur after eating a particular food, coming into contact with an allergenic, injecting, heat or infection infection. Chronic urticaria is rarely caused by specific triggers and may last for many months or years. Hives are not contagious but are very annoying.
Angioedema is a swelling of the deep layers of the skin. It occurs in soft tissues and mucous membranes like eyelids, mouth or genitals. Acute angioedema only lasts for a few hours and is triggered by an allergic reaction to medications, foods or other inhaled or ingested substances.
Chronic angioedema occurs recurrently and usually does not have an identifiable cause. Angioedema often appears on the face around the eye, cheeks, lips, hands, legs, genitals, internal organs, and throat.
Allergic skin reaction: remedies
Remedies and treatments for the treatment of skin allergic reactions change depending on the type of reaction and the triggering cause. Let’s see them in detail.
- Atopic dermatitis: Typical rashes of atopic dermatitis are pruriginous and this causes the patient to scratch. However scratches increase skin rash and symptomatology becomes a vicious circle. The first step to attenuating symptoms is to avoid scratching. Use moisturizing creams and ointments that reduce inflammation, for example steroids or calcineurin inhibitors. Antihistamines do not alleviate itching due to eczema. Antibiotics can be prescribed in the event of a bacterial skin infection.
- Allergic Contact Dermatitis: First of all, the substance that causes the problem should be eliminated. Pharmacological treatment involves the use of cortisone (both for topical use and for oral use if the disease is very extensive) and antihistamines especially during acute phases. In addition, zinc oxide creams are often recommended, very commonly used for diaper dermatitis.
- Hives and angioedema: If you have discovered the cause of the substance you are allergic to, the first step is to avoid any contact with it. Hives and angioedema are often treated with oral antihistamines that control itching, swelling and rash. In some cases it is necessary to associate antihistamines with steroids.
Patch Test: How does the Nickel Allergy Test Work?
The presence of a symptom that allows nickel allergy susceptibility causes the doctor to prescribe a diagnostic test known as “patch test” for nickel allergy.
The patch test consists of contacting the skin with impregnated diskettes of potentially allergenic substances. The amount of allergens is such that they do not cause side effects but, in the case of positivity, only a localized reaction at the contact point. In fact, the floppy disks are applied and placed on the top of the back for a period of about 48 hours, in which the patient should avoid to wet and expose the part with the patches to the sun.
If the skin becomes irritated at the point where the impregnated disk of a specific substance is present, then the patient is allergic to it. The patch test is a painless examination and should be performed on healthy, unchaste or reddened skin.
It is a side-effects analysis but during pregnancy it is not advisable since allergens may have effects on the fetus.
Food allergies: useful tests and common allergens
The ingestion of certain foods may cause an allergic reaction in some subjects whose immune system detects the ingested substance, such as allergen.
Identifying the substances to which the subject is allergic is crucial to avoid further exposure. Once uncovered food is discovered, the subject must avoid ingesting it to avoid any further reactions that may also include severe anaphylactic shock.
The diagnosis of food allergies is not simple and uses, besides testing, other parameters as well.
An allergist will then follow a specific iter to identify allergens that have caused the allergic reaction.
- History, or collection of information about the patient’s clinical history.
- Symptom analysis, ie assessment of signs and symptoms.
- Food Diary, compilation of a diary in which to record the foods taken, times and any allergic reactions.
- Skin tests, the skin of the patient is sprinkled with suspicious allergens and then being punctured by penetrating the substances into the skin.
- Blood tests, useful in the search for specific IgEs for some allergens.
- Eliminating diet, it goes by trying to eliminate, from time to time, a food from the patient’s diet, so you can evaluate the physical reaction and identify the “guilty” allergen.
Skin diseases: causes of dermatitis not due to allergy
Not always talking about allergic dermatitis. The cause of a dermatitis, in fact, does not necessarily have to be of allergic origin.
A skin discharge can be a sign of pathologies, sometimes systemic, also important and serious, such as:
- Psoriasis, chronic inflammatory pathology of autoimmune origin that affects the skin but can also cause an arthritic form known as psoriasis arthritis.
- Seborrheic dermatitis, a disease characterized by redness, dryness and desquamation of the affected skin, affects areas of the body where the sebaceous glands are present, such as the face, chest, and especially the scalp.
- Herpetiform (or Duhring) dermatitis is manifested with red bubbles that lead to itching. It is closely associated with celiac disease, in fact, gluten seems to be the cause of the IgA antibody response, responsible for skin rash.