The allergist will first use the basic tests and will use the allergens that most often cause problems. If the result is not conclusive and the health of your child so requires (asthma attacks or bronchospasms associated with an allergy without control can be dangerous), it will indicate more specific ones that must be performed in a hospital and with high measures of control.
Drops of allergens are placed on the arm 3 cm apart. Each one is punctured with a thin lancet to insert it under the skin.
Wait 20 minutes and measure the size of the wheal that appears. If the diameter exceeds 3 mm the result is positive (the child must not have taken antihistamines in the 10 days before the test, so that they do not influence it).
If there is a minimum wheal and doubts arise or if the result is not completely conclusive, the allergist will ask that a blood test be performed, either by normal extraction, or by a prick in the finger to obtain a couple of drops of blood (a the little ones do the puncture in the heel). The tests are carried out on that blood. As in the previous case, the 10-15 days before the extraction must not have taken any antihistamine.
PATCHES ON THE BACK
Apply patches with suspicious substances to both sides of the column and wait 24 hours to evaluate the reaction of the skin. They are used when it is suspected that something inhaled is the cause of atopic dermatitis (they should not be put on the skin treated with corticosteroids).
These tests are performed in a hospital environment and under medical supervision to immediately control a possible adverse reaction to the substance. It is usually used more for cases in which allergy to drugs or food is suspected. When it is for inhalants, the substance is applied to the eye every 15 minutes and the reaction of the conjunctiva is observed (itching, inflammation, etc.).
HOW THE ALLERGY IS TREATED
The first step is to relieve the discomfort of the symptoms. To do this, you must have a seawater spray for your nose on hand: it cleanses, has a mucolytic effect, repairs the nasal mucosa and reduces the itching of the nose and palate.
You have to wash your eyes a couple of times a day with saline and always wear sunglasses to go outside.
Regarding the pharmacological treatment, this has to be indicated by the pediatrician and / or the specialist. The child will need antihistamines, either in the form of syrups, eye drops, ointments or pills (if you know how to swallow them). A bronchodilator for cases of respiratory distress and asthma and a flow meter to know the condition of the bronchi.
Immunotherapy (the vaccine) must be personalized for each child and is the only therapy that cures the allergy. It consists of injectable solutions that must be administered at the health center, every week (for 4 to 12 weeks) and then once a month for 3-5 years.
There is also the option of administration of sublingual immunotherapy, this is done at home, during the start phase has to be every day and in maintenance phase, three times a week for 3-6 years.
Ask the specialist which one is best for your child.