About pet allergies
Allergy with pet means that allergies are caused by contact with pet, such as dogs, causing symptoms very similar to colds such as sneezing, runny nose and cough. Once you bring a dog into your house, you will be living together for nearly 10 years. It is important to confirm beforehand that not only you but also all the family members living together will not show allergic symptoms to pets.
What is dog allergy?
Dog allergy causes a symptom similar to a cold “Dog allergy” is a condition in which an allergic reaction given to a human by a dog is caused. Allergic reaction is a phenomenon in which the immune system including white blood cells reacts excessively to a foreign body entering the body and suffers the person who should protect it in reverse. And allergens (antigens) are substances that cause this allergic reaction.
There are individual differences as to what becomes an allergen for that person, for example, it is very likely that buckwheat (buckwheat), which is just a lunch for some, is a terrible allergen for some people. So it is possible that a dog, which is a cute pet for some people, is not so for another person.
Percentage of pet allergy
According to a survey by American “American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology” (AAAAI), the combined number of dog allergy and cat allergy is estimated to be around 15% of the population (→ Source). Also, according to a study conducted in 1983, cat allergy appears more frequent than dog allergy (→ Source). The reason for this is considered to be that “there are many opportunities for cats to get closer in intimacy than dogs”. According to a survey conducted in 1997 on a small number of patients (38 people) in Japan, 3% of rhinitis patients with dog breeding history showed allergic reactions to the epithelium of dogs.
Symptoms of dog allergy
As a light symptom of dog allergy, there are the following. I just felt a fever out of the condition when I caught a cold.
Light symptoms of dog allergy
- Wheezing (breathing is Sasey)
- Hyperemia / itching of eyes
- Runny nose and nuisance
- Redness of the skin
When these symptoms worsen further, it may develop into the following serious symptoms. In addition to the constitution of individuals, conditions such as already suffering from asthma may trigger.
Heavy symptoms of dog allergy
- Difficulty swallowing
- Nausea · vomiting
- Increase in heart rate
Cause of dog allergy
Seven species are currently known as causative substances of allergies generated in the body of dogs, that is, “allergens”. Among them the most famous is “Can f 1”, which is detected in most of the families breeding dogs, and even 15% of families who do not keep breeding have data that somehow was detected.
Can f 1 “Can f 1” is composed of a substance called “lipocalin” secreted from the sebaceous gland, and it is present in hair, dandruff and saliva many. Of those who are allergic to dogs, there is data that approximately 52% have IgE antibodies against this substance. Because it is very small, it adheres to fine particles such as dust, drifts in the air, and easily diffuses.
Can f 2 “Can f 2” is composed of the substance “lipocalin” as well as “Can f 1”. Examples of similar substances include cat’s “Fel d 4”, equine “Equ c 1”, bovine “Bos d 2” and “Bos d 5”, rat “Rat n 1”, mouse “Mus m 1” , Block 4 of cockroaches, etc. Many people who are allergic to “Can f 2” also respond to these substances.
Can f 3 “Can f 3” is composed of substances called “albumin”. There are data that about 44% of cats allergic to cats have reacted also with dog albumin.
Can f 4 “Can f 4” is composed of a substance called “lipid transport protein”, and it is often contained in dogs dandruff. Among those who are allergic to dogs, 35% have data that they possess IgE antibodies against this substance.
Can f 5 “Can f 5” is composed of a substance called “arginine esterase” (Arginine Esterase) and has the same structure as “kallikrein” contained in the prostate.
Can f 6 “Can f 6” is composed of “lipocalin” different from “Can f 1” and “Can f 2”.
Can f 7 “Can f 7” is a new allergen discovered in 2016 and consists of a protein called “NPC 2” contained in the organelle “lysosome”. The seroprevalence rate of allergy patients is approximately 10 to 20%.
There is a theory that “dog hair is causing allergy”, but that is a mistake. To be accurate, “allergens adhering to dog hair are causing allergic symptoms”. Also, in recent years, there are people who like Poodle and Bichon Friese, which are relatively low in hair loss, as “Hypoallengenic Dog” which is hardly allergic. However, since there are currently no dogs that do not contain “Can f 1” in saliva or urine, even if it is theoretically “a dog with no allergic symptoms”, there is no “dog not allergic” Become.
“In theory it is possible”, but in the study carried out in 2011, when comparing 11 dog species which are generally said to be less likely to have allergies and 49 dog species which is not so, after all There is no difference in allergen levels (→ Source). Also, since the size and constitution of individuals have a great influence on the production of allergens “Can f 1”, it is quite suspicious whether there are specific dog species actually called “hypoaregenic dog” . Nevertheless, the American breed association “American Kennel Club” (AKC) has shown the following 11 species of breeds as “an easy-to-keep dog allergy,” without showing clear evidence (medical evidence) We are clearly stating that.
Prevention of dog allergy
As a preliminary examination of dog allergy, it is recommended to receive allergy test beforehand in order to prevent dog allergy which has prick test and RAST test. Even if you have an allergic reaction, it may be unclear from what comes from a dog, or from pollen and other allergens attached to dog hair. If you are allergic tested and it is clear what is causing an allergic reaction, it will be a judgment material as to whether you can keep this dog before this.
“Prick test” and “RAST test” are mainstream methods for testing dog allergy. Although not all of the accuracy is 100%, it is recommended that everyone living with the dog receive it in advance. Internal medicine, otolaryngology, dermatology, allergic department etc please consult.
Dog allergy test method
- Prick Test The prick test is a test method that lightly sticks the surface of the skin with a needle with allergen attached. Often it is done inside the forearm.
- RAST test RAST test is an inspection method to collect a small amount of blood. It is judged whether or not a byproduct of an allergic reaction called “IgE antibody” comes out in the blood.
In some studies, the results show that when you contact dogs or cats within a year after birth, you will develop a constitution that is less likely to develop allergies after growing (→ Source 1 · Sources 2). However, in another study, there are conflicting results that exposure to allergens in early childhood has no effect on the incidence of asthma and allergic rhinitis since growing.
With opinions divided, I can not affirm that “You should be in contact with dogs and cats when you are a baby.” However, at least, there is no report that contact with dogs and cats in infancy increases the allergy incidence rate since growing, so it can not be said that “should not be in contact with dogs and cats when baby” It is the present condition.
Treatment of dog allergy
Currently, there is no silver bullet for allergies. So, if you get allergic symptoms after welcoming a dog, it is central to suppress the symptoms as much as possible without worsening symptoms.
Improvement of living environment
In order to minimize allergens from the living environment as much as possible, I will try to make the following improvements on a daily basis.
How to reduce dog allergy
- Restricting the range of action of dogs making out-of-bound zones to specific locations can reduce the likelihood of people touching allergens. If you do not allow dogs to enter the space frequently used by owners, such as living room or bedroom, you will be able to reduce symptoms by that much. However, doing so can not recommend breeding dogs outdoors because it significantly impairs welfare.
- If you leave the air purifier in the room running the air purifier, you can reduce allergens by that much. Especially, those with HEPA filter are recommended.
- Frequently sweeping the vacuum cleaner It is possible to reduce the allergen by applying a vacuum cleaner with a HEPA filter (※ box below) frequently to futons, cushions, curtains, stuffed dolls etc which are easy to adsorb allergens. However, it does not make much sense to strike a futon with bangs.
- In the experiment conducted in 1999, it was found that washing dogs with shampoo and shower results in reducing allergens in coat and dandruff by more than 80% (→ Source). However, if you do not do it twice a week, allergen level will return. In the case of dogs who do not dislike shampoo, this countermeasure is also effective, but it is also necessary to be careful not to get dermatitis by bathing too much.
- Frequently brushing If you reduce the amount of hair loss or dandruff that mediates allergens, you can reduce allergic reactions accordingly. However, since brushing itself may exacerbate the symptoms, let’s ask a collaborator who is not allergic to dogs as much as possible.
- Frequent washing hands Saliva and dandruff that mediate allergens adhere to hands that are most likely to come into contact with dogs. By intentionally washing hands you can reduce contact with allergens.
- Allergens that ventilate the room well are very small, so they are floating in the air as well. If you ventilate the room, you can reduce contact with allergens. However, if you are allergic to other substances such as hay fever, symptoms may deteriorate by taking in outside air. In that case, let’s substitute air cleaner.
What is HEPA filter?
HEPA filter (High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter) is a type of air filter used for the purpose of removing dust, dust and the like from the air and making it clean air. According to JIS Z 8122, it is stipulated as “air filter with performance that has a particle collection rate of 99.97% or more for particles with a particle size of 0.3 μm at rated airflow and initial pressure loss is 245 Pa or less”.
Consult with a doctor
While improving the living environment may alleviate symptoms, it is often not effective as well. In such a case there is a way to consult a doctor. As mentioned earlier, there is no silver medicine for allergies, so the doctor can do the “symptomatic treatment” which reduces symptoms as much as possible as much as possible. Consult with a doctor in internal medicine, otolaryngology, dermatology, allergy department, and prescribe a medicine suitable for constitution. Specifically, it is below.
Symptomatic treatment for allergy
- Nose spray
- Steroid drugs
- Desensitization therapy
Only the last “desensitization therapy” (Tsukanetsu Ryouho) is aimed at curing the symptoms. This is a treatment method that starts with low concentration allergen and gradually increases the concentration, so that you get used to allergens. If it goes well, the symptoms will be drastically reduced, but it is somewhat time consuming and there are people who are not effective, it is a flaw in the ball.